Thursday, August 17, 2017

Science X Newsletter Thursday, Aug 17

Dear Reader ,

Here is your customized Science X Newsletter for August 17, 2017:

Spotlight Stories Headlines

Larvaceans provide a pathway for transporting microplastics into deep-sea food webs

How we recall the past: Neuroscientists discover a brain circuit dedicated to retrieving memories

Researchers show how particular fear memories can be erased

Neurons involved in learning, memory preservation less stable, more flexible than once thought

Reed warblers have a sense for magnetic declination

TDRS: An era of continuous space communications

In a nutshell: Walnuts activate brain region involved in appetite control

Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: graphene

Outdoor light at night linked with increased breast cancer risk in women

Comparing the jaws of porcupine fish reveals three new species

Ancient species of giant sloth discovered in Mexico

Mexico's prickly pear cactus: energy source of the future?

Researchers find a way to combat pharmacoterrorism

Are stem cells the link between bacteria and cancer?

'Twinkling' enzymes could light the way to better cancer drugs

Astronomy & Space news

TDRS: An era of continuous space communications

More than 50 years ago, at the dawn of human spaceflight, the first brave astronauts were only able to communicate with mission control operators on Earth for about 15 percent of each orbit. If this were true today, the International Space Station would only be in contact with the ground for less than 15 minutes out of its 90-minute orbit. Today, nearly continuous communications with the space station and other Earth-orbiting missions is possible through a space-based communications network allowing nearly continuous global communications coverage for astronauts and robotic missions alike.

Closer look at red supergiant Antares suggests convection not enough to remove surface material

(Phys.org)—A trio of researchers with Universidad Católica del Norte and the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie has found evidence that suggests that convection alone cannot account for the amount of material that is pulled from the surface of a red supergiant. In their paper published in the journal Nature, K. Ohnaka, G. Weigelt and K.-H. Hofmann describe their study of the supergiant Antares, what they found and why they now believe there is an unknown force pulling some parts of the star's surface into space. Gail Schaefer with Georgia State University offers a News & Views piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue.

Astrophysicists predict Earth-like planet in star system only 16 light years away

Astrophysicists at the University of Texas at Arlington have predicted that an Earth-like planet may be lurking in a star system just 16 light years away.

Spacewalking cosmonauts release 3-D-printed satellite

Spacewalking cosmonauts set free the world's first satellite made almost entirely with a 3-D printer on Thursday.

NASA protects its super heroes from space weather

It's not a bird or a plane but it might be a solar storm. We like to think of astronauts as our super heroes, but the reality is astronauts are not built like Superman who gains strength from the sun. In fact, much of the energy radiating from the sun is harmful to us mere mortals.

Image: Europe's largest vacuum chamber, the Large Space Simulator

An external view of Europe's largest vacuum chamber, the Large Space Simulator, which subjects entire satellites to space-like conditions ahead of launch. This 15 m-high and 10 m-diameter chamber is cavernous enough to accommodate an upended double decker bus.

NASA's ICESat-2 preps for laser tests

Lasers that will fly on NASA's Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite-2, or ICESat-2, are about to be put to the test at the agency's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.

Image: Space station flight over the Bahamas

One of the most recognizable points on the Earth for astronauts to photograph is the Bahamas, captured in striking images many times from the vantage point of the International Space Station.

Technology news

Mexico's prickly pear cactus: energy source of the future?

The prickly pear cactus is such a powerful symbol in Mexico that they put it smack in the middle of the national flag.

New soft rubber for creating self-healing robots

(Tech Xplore)—A team of researchers at Vrije Universiteit Brussel has developed a type of rubber that can be used with robots to allow them to self-heal when cut. In their paper published in the journal Science Robotics, the team describes the rubber, how it self-heals and how it performed when tested.

Patent talk: Making car pillars seem transparent explored by Toyota

(Tech Xplore)—Big pillars may be a safety benefit for cars but what about driver visibility? "Since cars were first invented in 1886, the A-pillars have become wider, to help protect the cars in the instance of a crash. But this had made visibility for drivers more difficult," said Shivali Best in Daily Mail.

Computer approaches human skill for first time in mapping brain

A WSU research team for the first time has developed a computer algorithm that is nearly as accurate as people are at mapping brain neural networks—a breakthrough that could speed up the image analysis that researchers use to understand brain circuitry.

Wisconsin Assembly set to approve $3 billion for Foxconn

The Wisconsin Assembly planned to approve a $3 billion tax break Thursday for Taiwan-based Foxconn Technology Group to build a massive display panel factory in the state, a project President Donald Trump touted as a transformational win for the U.S. economy.

Hyundai unveils new fuel cell SUV with longer travel range

Hyundai Motor said Thursday it plans to launch early next year a second-generation hydrogen fuel cell vehicle that will travel more than 580 kilometers (360 miles) between fill-ups under Korean standards.

New Ford CEO says company will balance present with future

The new CEO of Ford Motor Co. says the company isn't taking its eyes off the present as it prepares for transportation in the future.

TV's next big experiment: 'choose your own adventure'

It's an all-too-familiar frustration for film fans—wanting to yell at the character who picks up the wrong suitcase, forgets the torch batteries or assumes wrongly the killer is dead.

Magnetic resonance is used to evaluate food quality

The applications and benefits of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in medicine are well known, but the technology is also used in other areas, such as agribusiness, where its applications include quality analysis of seeds and other products of animal and plant origin. NMR has recently reached the retail commerce sector, where it expedites the assessment of meat and fruit quality by supermarkets.

Animation made easy

Researchers from ETH Zurich and Disney Research have developed a software that makes it easier to animate characters in the entertainment industry. In the future, the software could also allow inexperienced users to design compelling motion cycles.

How to make an AI forget

We all know what it's like to forget something. A loved one's birthday. A childhood memory. Even people capable of extraordinary memory feats – say, memorising the order of a deck of cards in less than 20 seconds – will still forget where they left their keys. People, it seems, are never in complete control of their memories.

What businesses can do to stamp out slavery in their supply chains

Until quite recently, businesses didn't have a reason to dig deeper than assessing the price and appearance of the products shipped to their warehouses. But the reality of buyer-driven global supply chains means their decisions on price and the suppliers they select dictate conditions for workers across their entire supply chain.

Microsoft researchers test AI-controlled soaring machine

In the searing midday heat of the Nevada desert, a white Jeep Wrangler heads down a desolate strip of dirt road, surrounded on either side by miles of sagebrush and sand.

Using a camera to spot and track drones

EPFL researchers have shown that a simple camera can detect and track flying drones. Plus, the lightweight, energy-efficient and inexpensive technology could be installed directly on the drones themselves and enhance safety in the skies.

Star Trek-style communicator hopes to break down cultural barriers

In Star Trek, the technology to instantly translate any language was first developed in the late 22nd century, but today researchers are already working on ways to take universal communication even further.

Alibaba profit nearly doubles on robust revenues

Chinese e-commerce giant Alibaba said Thursday its net profit almost doubled in the latest quarter on the back of solid revenue growth in its core shopping business and in cloud computing.

Turner is latest to plan sports streaming service

Turner Sports is the latest TV company to announce a sports streaming service as traditional television companies chase millennial audiences.

New study challenges long-accepted views on human-autonomy interaction

A team of Army scientists and engineers have challenged long-held views in the area of human-autonomy interaction to change the way science involves people, especially in developing advanced technical systems that involve artificial intelligence and autonomy.

Older users like to snoop on Facebook, but worried others might snoop on them

Older adults are drawn to Facebook so they can check out pictures and updates from family and friends, but may resist using the site because they are worried about who will see their own content, according to a team of researchers.

HBO regains control of hacked social media accounts

HBO says it has regained control of its social media accounts after the latest security breach to hit the entertainment company.

Lithuanian man brought to US to face $100 million fraud case

A Lithuanian man has been extradited to the United States to face charges that he duped Google and Facebook into sending him over $100 million.

Computer scientists offer new techniques to measure social bias in software

Today, banks are increasingly using software to decide who will get a loan, courts to judge who should be denied bail, and hospitals to choose treatments for patients. These uses of software make it critical that the software does not discriminate against groups or individuals, say computer science researchers at the University of Massachusetts Amherst.

Journalists successfully used secure computing to expose Panama Papers, researchers say

A team of researchers from Clemson University, Columbia University and the University of Washington has discovered a security success in an unlikely place: the "Panama Papers."

Next-generation transport

For most of us, fluid dynamics and mechanics aren't particularly significant—that is, until we're white-knuckling it on a bumpy plane ride or trying to stay buoyant in unusually bubbly water. The way we navigate through air and water may one day be improved thanks to UC Santa Barbara researchers studying the complex properties and interactions of fluids.

Apple CEO makes $2 million pledge to fight hate

Apple is donating $2 million to two human rights groups as part of CEO Tim Cook's pledge to help lead the fight against the hate that fueled the violence in Virginia during a white-nationalist rally last weekend.

Tech companies banishing extremists after Charlottesville

It took bloodshed in Charlottesville to get tech companies to do what civil rights groups have been calling for for years: take a firmer stand against accounts used to promote hate and violence.

Medicine & Health news

How we recall the past: Neuroscientists discover a brain circuit dedicated to retrieving memories

When we have a new experience, the memory of that event is stored in a neural circuit that connects several parts of the hippocampus and other brain structures. Each cluster of neurons may store different aspects of the memory, such as the location where the event occurred or the emotions associated with it.

Researchers show how particular fear memories can be erased

Researchers at the University of California, Riverside have devised a method to selectively erase particular fear memories by weakening the connections between the nerve cells (neurons) involved in forming these memories.

Neurons involved in learning, memory preservation less stable, more flexible than once thought

The human brain has a region of cells responsible for linking sensory cues to actions and behaviors and cataloging the link as a memory. Cells that form these links have been deemed highly stable and fixed.

In a nutshell: Walnuts activate brain region involved in appetite control

Packed with nutrients linked to better health, walnuts are also thought to discourage overeating by promoting feelings of fullness. Now, in a new brain imaging study, researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) have demonstrated that consuming walnuts activates an area in the brain associated with regulating hunger and cravings. The findings, published online in the journal Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, reveal for the first time the neurocognitive impact these nuts have on the brain.

Outdoor light at night linked with increased breast cancer risk in women

Women who live in areas with higher levels of outdoor light at night may be at higher risk for breast cancer than those living in areas with lower levels, according to a large long-term study from Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. The link was stronger among women who worked night shifts.

Are stem cells the link between bacteria and cancer?

Gastric carcinoma is one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths, primarily because most patients present at an advanced stage of the disease. The main cause of this cancer is the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, which chronically infects around half of all humans. However, unlike tumour viruses, bacteria do not deposit transforming genes in their host cells and how they are able to cause cancer has so far remained a mystery. An interdisciplinary research team at the Max Planck Institute in Berlin in collaboration with researchers in Stanford, California, has now discovered that the bacterium sends stem cell renewal in the stomach into overdrive – and stem cell turnover has been suspected by many scientists to play a role in the development of cancer. By showing that the stomach contains two different stem cell types, which respond differently to the same driver signal, they have uncovered a new mechanism of tissue plasticity. It allows tuning tissue renewal in response to bacterial infection.

Study uncovers specialized mouse neurons that play a unique role in pain

Researchers from the National Institutes of Health have identified a class of sensory neurons (nerve cells that electrically send and receive messages between the body and brain) that can be activated by stimuli as precise as the pulling of a single hair. Understanding basic mechanisms underlying these different types of responses will be an important step toward the rational design of new approaches to pain therapy. The findings were published in the journal Neuron.

Inhibiting a protein found to reduce progression of Alzheimer's and ALS in mice

(Medical Xpress)—A team of researchers with Genetech Inc. and universities in Hamburg and San Francisco has found that inhibiting the creation of a protein leads to a reduction in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in mice models. In their paper published in the journal Science Translational Medicine, the team describes the protein, how it works and their hopes for a clinical trial they have begun.

Researchers make surprising discovery about how neurons talk to each other

Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh have uncovered the mechanism by which neurons keep up with the demands of repeatedly sending signals to other neurons. The new findings, made in fruit flies and mice, challenge the existing dogma about how neurons that release the chemical signal dopamine communicate, and may have important implications for many dopamine-related diseases, including schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease and addiction.

Vitamin C may encourage blood cancer stem cells to die

Vitamin C may "tell" faulty stem cells in the bone marrow to mature and die normally, instead of multiplying to cause blood cancers. This is the finding of a study led by researchers from Perlmutter Cancer Center at NYU Langone Health, and published online August 17 in the journal Cell.

New Pathology Atlas maps genes in cancer to accelerate progress in personalized medicine

A new Pathology Atlas is launched today with an analysis of all human genes in all major cancers showing the consequence of their corresponding protein levels for overall patient survival. The difference in expression patterns of individual cancers observed in the study strongly reinforces the need for personalized cancer treatment based on precision medicine. In addition, the systems level approach used to construct the Pathology Atlas demonstrates the power of "big data" to change how medical research is performed.

Genome analysis with near-complete privacy possible, say researchers

It is now possible to scour complete human genomes for the presence of disease-associated genes without revealing any genetic information not directly associated with the inquiry, say Stanford University researchers.

New technique overcomes genetic cause of infertility

Scientists have created healthy offspring from genetically infertile male mice, offering a potential new approach to tackling a common genetic cause of human infertility.

Two-step process leads to cell immortalization and cancer

A mutation that helps make cells immortal is critical to the development of a tumor, but new research at the University of California, Berkeley suggests that becoming immortal is a more complicated process than originally thought.

Schoolchildren who use e-cigarettes are more likely to try tobacco

Vaping - or the use of e-cigarettes - is widely accepted as a safer option for people who are already smoking.

Female mouse embryos actively remove male reproductive systems

A protein called COUP-TFII determines whether a mouse embryo develops a male reproductive tract, according to researchers at the National Institutes of Health and their colleagues at Baylor College of Medicine, Houston. The discovery, which appeared August 18 in the journal Science, changes the long-standing belief that an embryo will automatically become female unless androgens, or male hormones, in the embryo make it male.

Why the definition of polycystic ovary syndrome harms women

The changed definition of polycystic ovary syndrome harms women and brings no clear benefit, say Australian scientists in today's British Medical Journal.

Study shows improved survival among premature babies, risk of developmental delay remains high

Survival of preterm babies has increased worldwide. Recent studies have focused on outcomes of extremely preterm children (born at 22-26 weeks' gestation), but outcomes of children born very and moderately preterm (between 27 and 34 weeks' gestation) have rarely been reported.

Telling people not to 'down' drinks could make them drink more

Campaigns designed to stop young people "bolting" drinks can be ineffective and can even make them more likely to do it, new research suggests.

Children who skip breakfast may not be getting recommended nutrients

A study by researchers at King's College London has found that children who skip breakfast regularly may not be consuming the daily amounts of key nutrients for growth and development that are recommended by the UK government.

Simulation shows the high cost of dementia, especially for families

A new simulation of how the costs and the course of the dementia epidemic affect U.S. families finds that neurodegenerative conditions can more than double the health care expenditures of aging and that the vast majority of that financial burden remains with families rather than government insurance programs.

Daily e-cigarette users had highest rates of quitting smoking

Among U.S. adults who were established smokers in the past five years, those who use e-cigarettes daily were significantly more likely to have quit cigarettes compared to those who have never tried e-cigarettes. Researchers at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health and the Rutgers School of Public Health found that over half of daily e-cigarette users had quit smoking in the past five years, compared to just 28 percent of adults who had never tried e-cigarettes. This is one of the first studies to reveal the patterns of cessation prevalence among e-cigarette users at a national level.

Cloudy water linked to gastrointestinal illnesses: Suspended particles give germs a place to hide

Cloudy drinking water, even if it's within the limits allowed by some cities, was linked to increased cases of gastrointestinal illness, according to new Drexel University analysis.

Science Says: DNA test results may not change health habits

If you learned your DNA made you more susceptible to getting a disease, wouldn't you work to stay healthy?

Energy dense foods may increase cancer risk regardless of obesity status

Diet is believed to play a role in cancer risk. Current research shows that an estimated 30% of cancers could be prevented through nutritional modifications. While there is a proven link between obesity and certain types of cancer, less is known about how the ratio of energy to food weight, otherwise known as dietary energy density (DED), contributes to cancer risk. To find out, researchers looked at DED in the diets of post-menopausal women and discovered that consuming high DED foods was tied to a 10% increase in obesity-related cancer among normal weight women. Their findings are published in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.

Subarachnoid hemorrhage and the need for expert treatment

Research led by the head of the Barrow Neurological Institute and published in the July 20, 2017 issue of The New England Journal of Medicine reveals that subarachnoid hemorrhages, which are caused by ruptured brain aneurysms, account for 5-10 percent of all strokes and are best managed by experienced and dedicated experts at high-volume centers with neurosurgeons, endovascular surgeons and stroke neurologists. The article was co-authored by Barrow President and CEO Michael T. Lawton, M.D. and G. Edward Vates, M.D., Ph.D, of the University of Rochester Medical Center's Department of Neurosurgery."Subarachnoid hemorrhage victims tend to be younger than typical stroke victims, and they risk a greater loss of productive life," Dr. Lawton said. "It is critical that they receive the best treatment for aneurysms - like the multidisciplinary team approach and state-of-the-art therapy like that offered at Barrow."

Australian researchers in peanut allergy breakthrough

Australian researchers have reported a major breakthrough in the relief of deadly peanut allergy with the discovery of a long-lasting treatment they say offers hope that a cure will soon be possible.

Two lung diseases killed 3.6 million in 2015: study

The two most common chronic lung diseases claimed 3.6 million lives worldwide in 2015, according to a tally published Thursday in The Lancet Respiratory Medicine.

Study finds children pay close attention to potentially threatening information, avoid eye contact when anxious

We spend a lot of time looking at the eyes of others for social cues – it helps us understand a person's emotions, and make decisions about how to respond to them. We also know that adults avoid eye contact when anxious. But researchers have known far less about "eye gazing" patterns in children.

Tips for coping with rejection

With the school year starting soon, many students will be trying out for various sports teams and other activities, and while many will make these teams, others will not. Even though this rejection almost always stings, one Baylor College of Medicine expert has some tips for coping with rejection at any age.

Study shows probiotics can prevent sepsis in infants

A research team at the University of Nebraska Medical Center College of Public Health has determined that a special mixture of good bacteria in the body reduced the incidence of sepsis in infants in India by 40 percent at a cost of only $1 per infant. The findings are reported in the Aug. 16 issue of the journal Nature.

Pushing patients to online care options may have unintended consequences

E-visits, electronic communications between patients and physicians, seemed to be an innovative way for health care providers to give patients a low-cost alternative to visiting the doctor's office. Creating an online channel for care delivery offered the promise of reducing health care costs, while increasing the capacity of primary care physicians to see more patients by allowing them to handle routine questions or concerns through e-visits. At the same time, e-visits were seen as an innovation that could improve patient health by allowing patients to receive more attention and increased monitoring.

Why 'rage rooms' won't solve your anger issues

Rage rooms—where stressed out people go to relieve tension by smashing furniture, housewares, and electronics with baseball bats, crowbars, and sledgehammers—have become a global phenomenon. But taking out your frustration on chairs, dishes, flat-screen TVs—or fax machines, like a character from the 1999 cult classic Office Space—is not an effective form of anger management, according to Christie Rizzo, associate professor in the Department of Applied Psychology.

History of stress increases miscarriage risk, says new review

A history of exposure to psychological stress can increase the risk of miscarriage by upto 42 per cent, according to a new review.

Studying a new treatment for a common men's condition

A New Zealand-first research study happening in Canterbury could make treatment of a common male condition easier and less painful.

Student discovers tuberculosis DNA in dental plaque of Smithsonian's anatomical collection

In a collection of historic skeletal remains at the Smithsonian, microscopic signs of a serious contagion lurk in an intriguing place in a sample of individuals from 100 years ago.

Estrogen-mediated brain protection directly linked to intake of fatty acids found in oils

Scientists are increasingly appreciating estrogen's role in brain health. Now for the first time, production of estrogen in the brain has been directly linked to the presence of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

Occupational therapy shown to improve lives of people in chronic pain

A new study from the USC Chan Division of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy shows that lifestyle-based occupational therapy treatment significantly improves the experiences of people living with chronic pain.

Cars, bicycles and the fatal myth of equal reciprocity

Any public conversation about on-road cycling in Australia seems to have only one metaphor for the relationship between drivers and cyclists: equal reciprocity.

Artificial vision: what people with bionic eyes see

Visual prostheses, or "bionic eyes", promise to provide artificial vision to visually impaired people who could previously see. The devices consist of micro-electrodes surgically placed in or near one eye, along the optic nerve (which transmits impulses from the eye to the brain), or in the brain.

Five commonly over-diagnosed conditions and what we can do about them

Today five influential Australian health-care organisations – representing professionals, the public and policy makers – have released a statement outlining that some medical conditions are being diagnosed too often, and calling for action to tackle over-diagnosis and the over-treatment it produces.

Study finds obesity may outweigh meat consumption as driver of inflammation

Red and processed meat – considered prime suspects in disease-related inflammation – might actually be aiding and abetting another culprit, says a recent study led by a University of Nebraska-Lincoln researcher.

Geriatric trauma outcome score estimates unfavorable discharge

(HealthDay)—The geriatric trauma outcome score II (GTOS II) prognostic calculator can estimate the probability of unfavorable discharge in injured elders, according to a study published online Aug. 14 in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.

Noninvasive eye scan could detect key signs of Alzheimer's years before patients show symptoms

Cedars-Sinai neuroscience investigators have found that Alzheimer's disease affects the retina—the back of the eye—similarly to the way it affects the brain. The study also revealed that an investigational, noninvasive eye scan could detect the key signs of Alzheimer's disease years before patients experience symptoms.

Smoking linked to frailty in older adults

A recent paper published in Age & Ageing, the scientific journal of the British Geriatrics Society, finds that current smoking in older people increases the risk of developing frailty, though former smokers did not appear to be at higher risk.

Visual impairment among older adults associated with poor cognitive function

In a nationally representative sample of older U.S. adults, visual impairment was associated with worse cognitive function, according to a study published by JAMA Ophthalmology.

Scientists identify central neural circuit for itch sensation

Itching is an unpleasant sensation associated with the desire to scratch, and the itch sensation is an important protective mechanism for animals. However, chronic itch, often seen in patients with skin and liver diseases, remains a challenging clinical problem as uncontrollable scratching causes severe skin and tissue damage.

Pioneering research reveals how altered brain networks can lead to seizures

An international team of scientists, led by mathematicians from the University of Exeter's Living Systems Institute, have developed a ground-breaking new method that can identify regions of brain tissue most likely to generate seizures in people with epilepsy.

New method identifies brain regions most likely to cause epilepsy seizures

Scientists have developed a new way to detect which areas of the brain contribute most greatly to epilepsy seizures, according to a PLOS Computational Biology study. The strategy, devised by Marinho Lopes of the University of Exeter and colleagues, could help surgeons select specific brain areas for removal to stop seizures.

Tuberculosis drug may work better than others in its class

Treatment of tuberculosis involves a combination of several drugs, sometimes including drugs from a class known as fluoroquinolones. Using computer simulations, scientists have shown that the fluoroquinolone known as moxifloxacin may be superior to two other commonly used fluoroquinolones, according to a new paper in PLOS Computational Biology.

Disrupted gut microbiome makes children more susceptible to amoebic dysentery

Children with lower diversity of microbial species in their intestines are more susceptible to severe infection with the Entamoeba histolytica parasite, according to a new study published in PLOS Pathogens.

A better way to measure mortality trends?

A new study from Cleveland Clinic suggests long-term mortality trends may be better understood by focusing on life-years lost—remaining life expectancy for a decedent—instead of solely looking at cause of death.

Study shows cigarette makers shifted stance on nicotine patches, gum

The use of nicotine patches, gum, lozenges, inhalers or nasal sprays—together called "nicotine replacement therapy," or NRT—came into play in 1984 as prescription medicine, which when combined with counseling, helped smokers quit. But in 1996, at the urging of pharmaceutical companies, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allowed those products to be sold over-the-counter.

Opioids overused in migraine treatment, regardless of race, study finds

African-Americans are more likely to experience debilitating migraine headaches than whites, but a new study probing the issue found no evidence of racial disparities in treatment practices.

Cardiac ICU patient composition is changing over time

A new study uncovers changes in the makeup of the cardiac intensive care unit as more patients are primarily diagnosed with noncardiac conditions.

Smoking raises risk of aneurysm recurrence after endovascular treatment

In a new study, researchers report people who have experienced an aneurysm have another reason to quit smoking.

Experiences of stroke survivors with visual impairments examined

A new University of Liverpool study, published in Wiley Brain and Behaviour, identifies simple measures that could substantially improve the quality of life of stroke survivors with visual impairments.

Overdoses on the road: Drugged driving rises as a menace

An SUV crashed after all four occupants overdosed on heroin in North Carolina. The same day, a man in Williamsport, Pennsylvania, grabbed the steering wheel after his grandson lost consciousness while driving. Police in the city of 30,000 responded to 11 other overdose reports that day, including a woman who crashed her car just before a highway entrance.

Peroxisomes identified as 'fighters' in the battle against bacterial infections

A new addition to the fight against bacteria comes in the unlikely form of an organelle that previously had no link to the immune response. University of Alberta researchers have found that peroxisomes are required for cells in the innate immune response to bacteria and fungi.

Scientists develop novel immunotherapy technology for prostate cancer

A study led by scientists at The Wistar Institute describes a novel immunotherapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer based on the use of synthetic DNA to directly encode protective antibodies against a cancer specific protein. This is the first application of the new technology, called DNA-encoded monoclonal antibody (DMAb), for cancer immunotherapy. The study was published online in Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy.

Federal snack program does not yield expected impacts, researchers find

A well-intentioned government regulation designed to offer healthier options in school vending machines has failed to instill better snacking habits in a sample of schools in Appalachian Virginia, according to a study by Virginia Tech researchers.

College freshmen who weighed themselves daily lost body fat

Want to ward off the dreaded "Freshman 15?" Try putting a scale in your dorm room.

Young people with chronic illness more likely to attempt suicide

Young people between the ages of 15 and 30 living with a chronic illness are three times more likely to attempt suicide than their healthy peers, according to a new study from the University of Waterloo.

Concussion detection aid moves closer to getting in game

A concussion detection aid developed at the Medical University of South Carolina may one day help with field sobriety testing and even detect diseases such as Parkinson's, Huntington's and schizophrenia. All of those conditions can cause changes in the way a person blinks.

Kids learn moral lessons more effectively from stories with humans than human-like animals

A study by researchers at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education (OISE) at the University of Toronto found that four to six-year-olds shared more after listening to books with human characters than books with anthropomorphic (human-like) animals.

'Herd immunity' may be curbing U.S. Zika numbers

(HealthDay)—The number of Zika infections has dropped dramatically in Florida this summer, and scientists say herd immunity may be the reason why.

Should I stay or should I leave? Untangling what goes on when a relationship is being questioned

Knowing whether to stay in or leave a romantic relationship is often an agonizing experience and that ambivalence can have negative consequences for health and well-being.

Neuroscientist who studied Einstein's brain dies at 90

Marian Cleeves Diamond, a neuroscientist who studied Albert Einstein's brain and was one of the first to show that the brain can improve with enrichment, has died.

Intensive blood pressure Tx aids those with prediabetes

(HealthDay)—The beneficial effects of intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP) treatment are similar among those with prediabetes and fasting normoglycemia, according to a study published online Aug. 9 in Diabetes Care.

Few racial differences in peds anesthesia meds administration

(HealthDay)—There does not appear to be significant racial differences in preoperative or intraoperative medication administration for children undergoing emergency appendectomies, according to a study published online Aug. 10 in Pediatric Anesthesia.

Limited economic evidence for vitiligo treatments

(HealthDay)—The cost burden associated with vitiligo is high, although no evidence exists for the value of vitiligo treatments, according to a research letter published online Aug. 10 in the British Journal of Dermatology.

Evolocumab doesn't affect cognition when added to statins

(HealthDay)—There is no significant difference in cognitive function for patients treated with evolocumab or placebo added to statin therapy, according to a study published in the Aug. 17 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.

Study highlights readmit factors post atrial flutter ablation

(HealthDay)—Recognition of factors associated with early readmission for patients after atrial flutter (AFL) ablation is necessary for reducing costs and improving quality of life, according to a study published online Aug. 11 in the Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology.

Coping support assists parents of hospitalized children

(HealthDay)—Coping support interventions can reduce anxiety and stress, but not depression, among parents of hospitalized children, according to a review published online Aug. 17 in Pediatrics.

Higher rural suicide rates driven by use of guns

Suicide rates in rural areas of Maryland are 35-percent higher than in the state's urban settings, a disparity that can be attributed to the significantly greater use of firearms in rural settings, according to new research from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

Community health workers lead to better health, lower costs for Medicaid patients

As politicians struggle to solve the nation's healthcare problems, a new study finds a way to improve health and lower costs among Medicaid and uninsured patients.

6 out of 7 teens slip up on contact lens guidelines: CDC

(HealthDay)—About 6 out of 7 U.S. teens with contact lenses use them improperly, upping their odds for serious eye infections, government health officials say.

New treatment approved for deadly blood cancer

(HealthDay)—The U.S. Food and Drug Adminstration on Thursday approved the anti-cancer drug Besponsa (inotuzumab ozogamicin) to treat B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

Voters in counties with worse life expectancy turned to Trump in election

(HealthDay)—Offering another take on the forces behind the last presidential election, a new study reveals a link between living in an area where life expectancy is lower and voting for Donald Trump.

Cholesterol crystals are sure sign a heart attack may loom

A new Michigan State University study on 240 emergency room patients shows just how much of a role a person's cholesterol plays, when in a crystallized state, during a heart attack.

VA targets healthcare equity for all veterans—new research on reducing health disparities

In recent years, the Veterans Administration (VA) Healthcare System has expanded its efforts to target groups of veterans facing disparities in healthcare access and outcomes. An update on research toward advancing equitable healthcare for all veterans is presented in a September supplement to Medical Care.

Why state-level single-payer health care efforts are doomed

With members of Congress spending the month of August in their home districts, Republican efforts to do away with President Obama's signature legislative achievement, the Affordable Care Act (ACA), appear stalled, at least temporarily.

Video: The VIP neurons that orchestrate brain development

The complex choreography of brain development is orchestrated by less than 1% of neurons, Yale neuroscientists report in the Aug. 16 issue of the journal Neuron.

Artificial womb raises hope for premature babies

An artificial womb has been successfully used to incubate healthy baby lambs for a period of one week, and researchers hope the technology will one day be able to do the same for extremely premature babies.

Danes find more tainted eggs in food supply chain

Danish authorities say two companies have bought 6.8 tons eggs and 108 kilograms (238 pounds) of omelet, respectively, from farms involved in the contaminated egg scandal.

Do occupational factors affect reproductive health and chronic disease risk for nurses?

A prospective study of more than 20,000 nurses aged 20-45 years, 88% of whom had worked night shifts, reported their most common health issues, disease history, reproductive experiences, occupational exposures, and other lifestyle- and work-related factors. The study, which included 13% of all active Korean female nurses, is published in Journal of Women's Health.

Four ways to jazz up your salad

(HealthDay)—Salads are a diet staple for good reason—they're low calorie and filling.

What's the best strategy to increase living kidney donation?

A new analysis indicates that few strategies to increase living kidney donation have been evaluated effectively; however, educational strategies targeted to recipients and their family and friends have the best evidence of being successful. The analysis, which appears in an upcoming issue of the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (CJASN), also provides possible suggestions that could help investigators, organizations, and policy makers determine which, out of the many strategies that may be used to increase living donation, should be considered.

Reduced kidney function linked to an increased risk of community-acquired infections

Individuals with reduced kidney function may be at increased risk of developing infections acquired in the community, according to a study appearing in an upcoming issue of the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (CJASN). The findings indicate that people with kidney disease would benefit from an increased focus on preventing infections.

Early rotator cuff surgery yields good long-term outcomes

Early surgery to repair tears of one of the shoulder rotator cuff muscles provides lasting improvement in strength, function, and other outcomes, reports a study in the August 16, 2017 issue of The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery.

EpiPen maker finalizes settlement for government overcharges

EpiPen maker Mylan has finalized a $465 million government agreement settling allegations it overbilled Medicaid for its emergency allergy injectors for a decade—charges brought after rival Sanofi filed a whistleblower lawsuit and tipped off the government.

Biology news

Reed warblers have a sense for magnetic declination

Researchers recently showed that migratory reed warblers depend on an internal geomagnetic map to guide them on their long-distance journeys. But it wasn't clear how the birds were solving the relatively difficult "longitude problem," determining where they were along the east-west axis and which way to go. Now, the team's latest report published in Current Biology on August 17 has an answer. The birds rely on changes from east to west in magnetic declination, the angular difference between geographic north and magnetic north.

Comparing the jaws of porcupine fish reveals three new species

Researchers at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and colleagues compared fossil porcupine fish jaws and tooth plates collected on expeditions to Panama, Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil with those from museum specimens and modern porcupine fish, revealing three new species.

Researchers unlock cheesemaking secret

Researchers say their new knowledge on the inner workings of a bacterium has important implications for Australia's billion dollar cheese industry.

The laws of attraction: Pheromones don't lie, fruit fly research suggests

Life as a fruit fly seems pretty simple: Hatch, grow, eat some fruit, find a mate, produce hundreds of tiny offspring and die—all in a month or so.

Researchers describe gene that makes large, plump tomatoes

Farmers can grow big, juicy tomatoes thanks to a mutation in the Cell Size Regulator gene that occurred during the tomato domestication process. Esther van der Knaap of the University of Georgia, Athens and colleagues describe this gene variant in a study published in open-access journal PLOS Genetics on August 17th, 2017.

Worm atlas profiles gene readouts in every cell type in the animal

The roundworm stars in the first-ever compilation of gene readouts in every kind of cell in an animal. The readouts, which were taken at a particular stage in the worm's life, reveal, for example, which genes are turned on or off in each cell.

Slowing dangerous bacteria may be more effective than killing them, researchers report

Researchers at the University of Illinois have discovered a mechanism that allows bacteria of the same species to communicate when their survival is threatened. The study suggests it may be possible to slow dangerous infections by manipulating the messages these microbes send to each other, allowing the body to defeat an infection without causing the bacteria to develop resistance to the treatment.

Researchers have identified olfactory receptors that enable ants to smell and recognize workers, males, and their queen

Queen ants spend most of their time having babies. To reign supreme in a colony, they exude a special scent, or pheromone, on the waxy surface of their body that suppresses ovary development in their sisters, rendering the latter reproductively inactive workers that find food, nurse the young and protect the colony.

Bacteria stab amoebae with micro-daggers

Bacteria have to watch out for amoeba. Hungry amoebae hunt them: they catch them with their pseudopodia and then absorb and digest them.

New gene catalog of ocean microbiome reveals surprises

Microbes dominate the planet, especially the ocean, and help support the entire marine food web. In a recent report published in Nature Microbiology, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa (UHM) oceanography professor Ed DeLong and his team report the largest single-site microbiome gene catalog constructed to date. With this new information, the team discovered nutrient limitation is a central driver in the evolution of ocean microbe genomes.

Molecule increases pregnancy rate and number of offspring in cattle

Researchers at Inprenha Biotecnologia, a company based in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil, working in partnership with colleagues at the University of São Paulo's Ribeirão Preto School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (FCFRP-USP), have discovered a molecule that can increase bovine pregnancy rates and reduce early embryo loss. The resulting drug enhances reproductive efficiency in domestic animals such as cattle and horses.

When collecting bird sperm, method matters

Different methods of collecting bird sperm produce different sperm lengths, potentially affecting the conclusions of fertility studies.

Whales turn tail at ocean mining noise

A new international study has measured the effect of loud sounds on migrating humpback whales as concern grows as oceans become noisier.

Brain protein found to control appetite and body fat composition

NPGL, a recently discovered protein involved in brain signalling, has been found to increase fat storage by the body – even when on a low-calorie diet.

How to live with bears

Bears have been on Europeans' minds lately, as violent encounters with these powerful mammals make international headlines.

Evolution of a killer—researchers study traces deadly fungus affecting bats

A new study from U of T Mississauga is shining a light on genetic changes happening in the darkest of places – bat caves.

Measuring global biodiversity change

A new paper co-authored by a group of international scientists, among them UvA researcher W. Daniel Kissling, shows how Essential Biodiversity Variables can be produced to measure biodiversity change at a global scale. The publication is an outcome of the first two workshops organized by the EU-funded Horizon 2020 project GLOBIS-B: GLOBal Infrastructures for Supporting Biodiversity research. The main aim of the project is to bring together scientists with global research infrastructure operators and legal interoperability experts to address the research needs and infrastructure services required to calculate Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs).

Hemorrhagic fevers: Countering inflammation to prevent circulatory failure

Hemorrhagic fevers are severe viral diseases that are often fatal. Researchers from the University of Basel have now identified messenger substances of the immune system, which in infected mice lead to the development of shock. These results, published in the scientific journal Cell Host & Microbe, open up new possibilities for the development of life-saving therapies.

New proposal for a subspecies definition triggered by a new longhorn beetle subspecies

The discovery of a new subspecies of longhorn beetle from Scandinavia triggered a discussion on the vague organism classification rank 'subspecies'.

How the genome sets its functional micro-architecture

The genes that are involved in the development of the fetus are activated in different tissues and at different times. Their expression is carefully regulated by so-called "enhancer sequences", which are often located far from their target genes, and requires the DNA molecule to loop around and bring them in close proximity to their target genes. Such 3D changes of the DNA are in turn controlled by other sequences called topologically associating domains (TADs). EPFL scientists have now studied the TADs involved in digit development in the fetus and have gained insights in some of the big questions surrounding them. The work is published in Genome Biology.

Ray of hope for more abundant wheat crops

Crops such as wheat could be up to 21% more efficient at turning the sun's energy into food, according to new research by Lancaster University.

Potato waste processing may be the road to enhanced food waste conversion

With more than two dozen companies in Pennsylvania manufacturing potato chips, it is no wonder that researchers in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences have developed a novel approach to more efficiently convert potato waste into ethanol. This process may lead to reduced production costs for biofuel in the future and add extra value for chip makers.

Berry research project seeks Alaskan volunteer citizen scientists

Across Alaska, berry harvests have begun in earnest—and, this year, so has a project in which Alaskans will help track their berry patches scientifically.

First successful wild whale shark health assessments performed

For the first time ever, scientists successfully performed health assessments, including collecting blood and biological samples, taking measurements and attaching satellite tracking tags, to a population of wild whale sharks - the world's largest fish, classified as "endangered" since 2016. The research advancement, which occurred in Indonesia's remote Cendrawasih Bay, has significant implications for unlocking the mysteries surrounding the overall health of whale sharks—including the potential impacts of tourism on their health. These details can better inform future conservation policies to protect and encourage their population recovery.

Smithsonian manatee count informs policy recommendations

All three of the world's manatee species are threatened with extinction: the Amazonian Manatee, the African Manatee and the West Indian Manatee. The Antillean Manatee, an endangered subspecies, feeds and calves in rivers and coastal wetlands from the Gulf of Mexico to Brazil. Smithsonian scientists were the first to use sonar to estimate Antillean Manatee populations in the murky waters of Panama's internationally protected San San Pond Sak wetlands.


This email is a free service of Science X Network
You received this email because you subscribed to our list.
If you no longer want to receive this email use the link below to unsubscribe.
https://sciencex.com/profile/nwletter/
You are subscribed as jmabs1@gmail.com

ga